Changes in Facility Design Will Affect Processing

More stations will feed from one location using cloud, virtualized processing or MPX over IP

Radio World Online | September 2022 | VIEW ORIGINAL ARTICLE


Gary Kline is a broadcast consultant seasoned in PPM optimization, audio processing, studio design, RF optimization, due diligence, cap-ex negotiations and budgeting. He also has expertise in telecom savings, cloud-based/hybrid workflows, podcasting and visual radio.

RW: What is the most important trend in how processors are designed or used?

Gary Kline: Most processors are mature in their design. There are the occasional software updates, most of them incremental in terms of sound. Some are more about features; and then there are major updates for audio like G-Force for the Omnia.11.

I think MPX over IP is another more recent step, not in terms of audio, but in terms of letting us redesign the way we distribute audio — in many cases, more intelligently.

Also, the recent evolution to containers and cloud for some of the boxes is another step towards a refined modern facility, allowing us to run many instances of processing in an efficient manner. Again, not so much about audio quality, but about plant design and intelligent/efficient distribution of our public-facing products.

Having said that, it’s conceivable that a redesign using MPX over IP or high-density processing might improve the audio quality by the mere fact of replacing old STLs, analog gear or other transmission-path items that limit performance.

RW: If loudness was a main goal in the past, what characterizes successful processing today?

Kline: Ensuring that the target demos are reached and that time spent listening is maximized.

Loudness matters too, but more than loudness, stations want ratings improvement. If not ratings, then quality of audio and — this is important — quality of RF.

Do they want quality of audio so bad that the loudness is way low? No. But it is a balancing act whereby business goals are weighed heavily. Processing is a tool, not a game to see who can outdo the other.

There are exceptions. I could name some domestic and international markets where there are a few loudness wars.

RW: What other distribution channels require audio processing attention today?

Kline: Obviously, streaming is a big one. In fact, I would offer that many streams are not processed very well.

Don’t get me wrong, there are many very nice-sounding streams out there. But I do find several stations using old leftover boxes that are not competitive or set properly for streaming. Streaming processing does not require 75 μs (or 50 μs) emphasis or the same amount of clipping we use on FM.

I think stations should be looking at their video feeds, if they have any. Does your visual radio audio feed to YouTube or Facebook sound proper on a laptop or 55-inch LCD? DAB and HD Radio are over-the-air but they can also be overlooked in terms of top-notch processing adjustments or hardware/software.

RW: How will the cloud, virtualization and SaaS affect the processing marketplace?

Kline: It will ultimately change how we design facilities in the future. But this will be, in my opinion, part of a larger cloud computing and virtualization design.

The entire studio operation needs to be evaluated in terms of virtualization from microphone to speaker, and this includes processing. We are already seeing, and I think we will see more over time, stations feeding their transmitters from a central location using the cloud, high-density virtualized processing and/or MPX over IP. I’m seeing this more in Europe and internationally, but I do know of folks in the USA doing it too.

The problem right now is that not everyone understands all of the different technologies and how to use them together. Several manufacturers have prepared online courses to help with this.

RW: What challenges or issues do cloud-based program material sources present?

Kline: Audio quality in some instances. That’s because some cloud solutions use reduced-quality algorithms to reduce the bandwidth needed to send the audio across the public internet. Are these reductions noticeable? Depends on the algorithm and how many times this is being done in the chain.

RW: What’s being done to handle FM stereo multipath distortion and reduce clipping distortion in source material?

Kline: Not enough. I find too many stations have many MP3 files or otherwise compromised source material. It’s not OK, and it is a common problem. I’ve lost count of the number of stations I have consulting and advised replacing hundreds of cuts before we finalized the processing. It makes a huge difference in quality and against the competition.

RW: What did the pandemic experience teach us about audio processing?

Kline: Your streaming audio quality matters a lot. And your sonic signature on Alexa, Google and other smart speakers matters too. Including your mono (summed stereo audio).

RW: What tools are available to mitigate issues involving synchronization of HD Radio and analog signals?

Kline: I think we are past that now. Several transmitters can do this internally, sync your levels and timing. And if not, products like the Inovonics Justin 808 or Belar FMHD-1 can do it for you. Nautel has some interesting solutions of their own that you can find online. Often, when I find an HD station that’s not synched, it is an engineering problem, not a lack of proper equipment. Not in 2022.

RW: Do you have a philosophy for processing?

Kline: I come into each situation with an open mind, and I consider each project to be unique. I weigh the specific format, current sound of the station, market ballistics — the sound of the market including direct
competitors — station input and personal input from myself, then decide what to do next.

Processing is way more than twisting knobs or playing with software. That’s almost the last thing I do after a complete analysis. In some cases, nothing needs to change — and you need to be prepared to accept that too.

I put great emphasis on the goals of the station, with input from the PD, OM and perhaps the GM. There are ratings, target demos, audience sharing and overall signature sound to consider. In some smaller markets, it’s
not necessarily about ratings, it’s more about the sound and perceived dominance of the station.

RW: What else should we know about processing for radio?

Kline: Analyze each situation carefully. Spend time with the stakeholders to establish their goals. And if their goals don’t make sense, discuss that before touching anything.

Don’t forget to look at the entire air chain. Often, there are problems with the audio before it ever hits the input terminals of the processor. Audio signatures matter. Develop your own.

You're Buying More Than a Product

Let's look at key areas to consider when assessing automation

Gary Kline | Radio World Online | April 2021 | VIEW ORIGINAL ARTICLE


Automation, sometimes referred to as the playout system, is a critical asset at many if not most radio stations. These systems can range from small and economical to enterprise-scale. Regardless of the scope and complexity of the system you use, at some point you'll be tasked with expanding, upgrading or outright replacing it. More often than not, station management opts to stay with the same automation supplier versus making a complete change. Transitioning to a different system typically means extra work and more disruption to everyday station operations, including retraining everyone. It has been said that the best automation system is the one you know.

But does that system give you room to adapt to current technology and workflows?

Questions to ask

For the past 15 years, automation systems have done a good job at providing hard drive space, memory, speed, networking, metadata, file management, uptime and GUIs. The days of having to reboot your hardware every day or compressing audio files to fit on the drive are long gone for most systems. Options we needed to weigh in earlier purchasing are no longer an issue with today's systems, which are rich in features, reliability and capacity.

So what key questions should you ask instead?

Are you thinking about moving to the cloud?

If you are considering either a full cloud infrastructure or a hybrid approach, make sure your supplier has a dedicated development team devoted to the cloud. Cloud-based playout is no easy task; you'll do well to purchase from a company with dedicated resources.

Cloud technology for broadcast is still in its early stages. You want to ensure that the company you choose to saddle up with is committed to innovation for the long term.

Be aware that cloud playout will be billed as an ongoing software cost, typically monthly or annually. So your capital expenditure goes down - there is less hardware to purchase - but your operational expenses go up.

Think about how that might affect your profitability, and consider other op-ex costs to reduce due to advantages such as less hardware and technical support on-site. Those considerations could lead to a reduced real-estate footprint, decreased maintenance costs or other synergies.

Whether you move to the cloud now or in the future, ensure that your automation provider does not limit your options down the road.

What is your cybersecurity posture?

More importantly, does your current or proposed automation system fit within it?

Cyber attacks, system hijacks and ransomware are real and present threats and should not be ignored. Sure, you may have firewalls and tight network security inside your plant. But if something sneaks through, taking advantage of a zero-day exploit, you could be in big trouble.

What protection mechanisms does your automation system have? What redundancy in situations like this does it offer? That might be reason enough to buy a system that offers at least some form of hybrid cloud that allows for almost instant service restoral.

Will my system support interoperability?

It is not uncommon lately to find a myriad of technologies in the studio. There are the standard fader consoles, glass (touchscreen) mixers, AoIP networks, video cameras, lighting systems, remote voice tracking, geographically diverse studios, and more.

If your studio doesn't have some of these things yet, it will someday. Conduct a detailed review of the interoperability of the proposed system. Ask about how easily it interfaces to AoIP protocols, especially the control layer.

The system should be able to handle basic camera control for visual radio. How easily does it manage remote connections to other locations, especially work-from-home situations that are common in the pandemic? We all made it work, but how simple was the workflow?

The bottom line is that you should ensure your next automation purchase can easily integrate into and improve your workflows. You should not have to "work around" the system to make things play nice.

Are they a vendor or a partner?

I think most of us would agree that purchasing an automation system is about as significant as it gets. You can have the best console, transmitter and talent, but everyone suffers without a functional playout system. That includes the audience.

So when choosing, ask yourself if the manufacturer is someone you'd consider as a business partner who is there for you before, during and after the sale and installation.

Like airplanes and consoles, a playout system, once installed, is in operation for many years. This is not something you'll be swapping out every year.

Take a close look at your proposed partner's bench strength. How many employees do they have? We all know how important technical support is. How experienced is their support team? What is their track record for development and focus on the product line?

Are they financially sound? You want them to be around for a long time, and you want them to have funding to pursue research and development well into the future. Some companies make a friendly playout system but do not have the funding to develop future technologies or adapt to changing workflows.

Does the company listen to feedback and incorporate suggestions into future releases? How often do they update their software (ask about minor releases and major version updates)? Do they have a presence in the country where you operate?

What's my game plan?

As in any significant station project, make sure you have a plan from the start.

This means you should have a strong understanding of why you are changing or upgrading your automation system. You may need to revisit this question as you dig into the costs and resources needed to execute the plan. It is not uncommon for a stakeholder to ask, "Tell me again why we are going though all this effort and expense." If you can't justify the necessities, you may run into obstacles receiving the final sign-off.

Identify your upgrade and conversion team ahead of time and designate a leader and key decision-makers. Typically, these working groups will include representatives from engineering, programming, operations, finance/management and sales. Each of these departments is affected by the choice of system and feature set, so it is best to include them early in the process.

In summary, don't approach the purchase as though it is a simple piece of gear.

How to Choose Your Next Radio Console

Questions to ask yourself as you prepare to make a purchase

Gary Kline | Radio World Online | December 2020 | VIEW ORIGINAL ARTICLE


Congratulations, you’ve decided to buy a radio broadcast console!

The complexity of broadcast plants has increased, accelerated by the demands of new types of content across many types of platforms.

Here are important questions to ask yourself as you prepare to make your purchase.

Who am I?

Identifying “who you are” is the first step in the decision tree.

Are you a stand-alone station? A cluster in a market? A group owner with a handful of markets, or hundreds of stations? A state-owned network? A network serving affiliates on a regional or national basis? A production house or podcaster?

Identifying your size and scope can point you as you navigate audio mixing and routing technologies.

For example, a large group owner might be more interested in virtual or centralized operations, while a small cluster might be more interested in a self-contained digital system.

Or let’s say you operate as a network that serves affiliates; you may be interested in consoles with extra control capability and extra routing. Large-scale radio shows need to be routed to various paths for regionalized spot insertion, potentially avoiding copyright issues with beds, to feed audio streams and video channels.

The network studio console also requires buttons and controls to send cues to satellite stations for commercial switching, imaging and IDs.

Now, typical modern consoles can do a lot of that; the point is that on a network syndicated program, you may want an expanded version of the same.

These few examples illustrate why it is essential to identify who you are. Many consoles look alike but differ in functionality, and the differences are not always immediately apparent. Understanding how to identify and navigate the nuances can make a big difference in your users’ long-term satisfaction and productivity.

Do I need a physical console?

Don’t be afraid to ask this aloud.

For most of us, the notion of a studio has included a physical mixing console at the center. But it’s becoming more common to use a tablet or flat-screen control surfaces; some are even transitioning into private or leased cloud platforms. These can handle the mixing and content playout for many stations. In some instances, there’s no console in the studio at all. (There may not even be a need for a studio.)

Some radio groups have announced that they are looking to virtualize to reduce their footprint and save on real-estate costs.

So before you go shopping for a traditional console, consider whether you need one, or if a flat-screen or tablet approach makes sense.

Do I understand the terminology?

You’ve heard the terms thrown around: AoIP (audio over IP), AES, AES67, AES70, cloud or virtual mixing, node, blade, driver, glass, Opus, CAN bus, multicast, unicast, engine, Livewire, Wheatnet, Dante, MPX over IP, auto-mix, GPIO, master clock and console- versus network-centric.

Defining each is beyond the scope of this article, but take time to learn what they are. Discuss terminology with your engineer, consultant or preferred equipment vendor. Do a Google search.

Learn about AoIP, the most widely installed recent technology. AoIP’s newest implementations, like cloud-based mixing, are best explained by manufacturers that offer it or technical consultants who specialize in audio technology.

What’s the purpose?

Will the room function as an air studio, production room, combo air/production room, voice-track room or booth, a newsroom, a network program control room for syndication, a workstation for news or sports?

Chances are you’re buying consoles for several rooms; that adds another layer of consideration; you’ll still need to define each room’s purpose, but you’ll also need to consider the facility’s big-picture purpose as well.

Also, take into account what type of content each room is producing. A sports station has different needs than a music station, which has different needs than a 24/7 news station. Air studio consoles are configured differently from a production room. The latter rely more heavily on digital audio editing software to handle mixing but can be smaller than an air studio console. On the other hand, a network control room needs more individual channels and busses. Other use cases may change the console layout.

From the big picture perspective, establish whether the facility is to operate on its own or connect to a centralized operations center. If you decide on centralization, will the equipment be housed in your building, another remote location, or in the cloud?

Seek input from the stakeholders

This can be overlooked, but the people who operate and manipulate the console are excellent sources of information regarding what works and doesn’t with your current setup.

They will have a list of improvements and features they would like to see in the workflow. Talent, producers, PDs, and board ops all have something to say about the console they touch every day.

For complicated situations like multi-person morning shows, I have sat in a few times to watch what goes on and learn in real time what their pain points might be.

By interviewing the stakeholders and doing in-studio sit and watch sessions, you will learn beneficial information to guide you in selecting the right console (physical or soft). If you skip this step, you may end up with complaints and unhappy team members who felt they were not given a voice.

Analog, Digital, AoIP, Cloud or Hybrid?

These days, it is rare for stations of any size or complexity to choose an analog distribution path for broadcast on-air use.

Good analog consoles for radio are still being made; one of them may be the best fit for users who need simple reliability and affordable cost. But with digital options more affordable than ever, do research that option too.

Be aware that going analog can involve a lot of cabling, which can be expensive to install and maintain. Analog consoles can lose calibration and may not provide the same noise floor or stereo separation, not to mention other specs.

Note that recording studios and musicians at times may prefer analog for their specialized needs, though to be clear, those boards (they sometimes call them desks) are very different in style and function than a radio console.

For many console buyers today, digital is the preferred way to manage audio and route signals in a broadcast facility, even for buyers with relatively modest budgets.

If you opt for digital, you must decide between using a traditional digital technology such as AES-3, MADI or similar with localized inputs and outputs or an AoIP network-centric design.

For years we built studios using a console-centric mentality; the console was the center of everything in the room. Your input sources wired to it directly. There was a single program or audition output that fed the air chain. There may have been an external router installed in more extensive facilities, but this was not a network-centric design.

A network-centric system uses consoles and source gear that rely on off-the-shelf network switches to move audio, control, and metadata around your plant. You’ll find AoIP networked audio systems in many of the newer studio buildouts worldwide in all sizes of facilities.

Several console manufacturers offer a large selection of AoIP solutions and peripherals to meet almost any requirement. A network-centric solution has many advantages and cost savings over traditional digital or analog designs. The wiring is greatly simplified, as AoIP uses the same Cat-5/6 cabling that your data and phone network does. You can manage the system from almost anywhere with a smartphone or laptop. Routing audio and everyday things such as IFB, mix-minus and remote (OB) feeds is a cinch.


The concept of virtualization is becoming more familiar to broadcasters.

By virtualizing audio infrastructure, you can remove some or all of the hardware, thereby reducing your capital and annual maintenance costs, replacing a portion of those with cloud service costs over time.

Virtualization also enhances your off-site backup capability, which allows you to restore operations should something happen to the studio. Today, It’s no longer about an off-site backup of data (music and other critical files), but also about being able to restore broadcast operations from any location with suitable internet.

One type of virtualized environment allows you to operate using the “cloud” (some central data center that you own or lease from a console vendor) and, if you desire, to feed your transmitter site directly. In a scenario such as this, you only need to log in remotely to the data center and log into your playout system to manage the station from anywhere.

If you are not ready to leap entirely into the cloud, you have the choice to go with a “hybrid” or “private cloud” approach. This is yet another example of a virtualized environment.

Hybrid involves a certain amount of locally maintained hardware with a complimentary cloud solution on the back end. It could be something as simple as running your automation playout system locally but having it backed up in the cloud for business continuity purposes. If something went wrong with the studio, you could switch to the cloud for playout or immediately sync the cloud data to another computer that would pick up where the other left off. Private cloud is typically a virtualized environment with the data center located on-premise or inside company-owned or leased facilities, hence private.

Another example would be to utilize a work surface (glass or physical console) that uses a mixing engine in the cloud. Think of it like having a traditional console with faders and knobs but being able to plug it into any internet connection and run the station like you were in the original studio.

What’s my budget?

I recommend you consider the budget only after you’ve thought hard about what technology makes the most sense. Don’t let budget concerns get in the way of making the right call on technology.

Of course, in some situations, the amount of money available isn’t negotiable. But there are good choices for consoles that fit almost every budget, so there’s no reason to rule something out prematurely just because you think, “I can’t afford that new digital stuff.”

I’ve sat in many meetings where the budget increased after senior management and stakeholders received an education on the benefits of AoIP and the future of network-centric design.

Also, be aware that as technology moves toward service models, your costs migrate from a “capital expense” model, meaning largely paid up at the time of purchase, to “operating expense,” with costs incurred over time. For instance, if you choose to use virtualization or a hybrid approach, you’ll be paying an ongoing fee for the benefit of media cloud services; that’s an “op-ex” model.

For many buyers, a final analysis of operating versus capital will involve someone from the business department.

Where should I shop?

Depending on which technology you’ve chosen and where you are in the world, a particular group of manufacturers makes sense for you; the list will include companies you know, but make sure to learn all that are active in your country or market.

Develop your list through online research, discussions with fellow engineers and consultants, trade shows, and reading articles like those in Radio World about the decisions made by well-regarded facilities and managers.

Buying a console is like buying an airplane; it lasts for many years. Even if you aren’t using a physical surface, you’ll be living and working with your software system for a long time. The quality of the company, including its level of support, is critical.

Pricing deals can be time-consuming as there are several components to a digital audio system. You may be purchasing a work surface, network switches, software drivers (for playout systems and other computer-based audio sources), XY panels, headphone panels, support, etc.

Review every line item and double-check those quantities are right. For complex systems, it is best to go over the details with an expert, someone at the manufacturer, a trusted reseller, a consulting engineer, an integrator or your corporate engineering team if you have one. One pass is not enough; it’s standard on larger projects that the buyers review their equipment list several times.

Deep breath, and let’s buy!

When you are ready to “pull the trigger,” step back and review each step in your decision tree.

This is not about second-guessing but ensuring you’ve carefully thought through the process. If you rushed because it’s budget season or management issued a last-minute directive, this is the time to step back and review. A pause also adds credibility to the procurement process.

Executing your purchase, believe it or not, is the easy part. Sign the contract and place the order.

Then get ready for the excitement of delivery and installation. Studio and console upgrades are a huge morale booster at any station anywhere on the globe. It signifies an advance and an investment in your product. Every employee will feel it.


The author is a broadcast consultant who has held technical positions with several major broadcast organizations, most notably as senior VP of engineering at Cumulus Media.

He has provided engineering support and consulting in the United States, Canada, China, Europe and several South American countries. He is a past recipient of the Radio World Excellence in Engineering Award.

11 Processing Things to Think About

Published in Radio World: Trends In Audio Processing For Radio | October 2020 | View Digital Edition (PDF)

Here are some best practices as well as some questions you should consider

As we have in several eBooks, we conclude by asking veteran engineer and consultant Gary Kline to create a list of key topics to consider.

I think the processor may be one of the most discussed pieces of equipment that a station owns. Everyone you meet in any country will be glad to give you their opinion on which is the best for a particular market, format or budget. If you put 10 PDs or engineers in a room, it would be rare that they agree on the “best processor out there.”

That said, there are points most processing gurus will agree on. Here are some based on my travels and experience.



Get to know everything you can about your competitors and their technical setup.

This goes beyond listening to every station on the dial carefully (you should), but also objectively. Don’t be reluctant to admit that another station sounds — in your opinion — better than yours. Do your research, which may require intelligence gathering. Get to know everyone’s transmission path including console, STL, transmitter, age of equipment, and, of course, the processing they use. Don’t forget to listen to HD or DAB channels too.

You should know your equipment; once you know what the competition is using, you can balance your objectiveness.

For example, say you think the CHR competitor sounds better than you. Is that because they have a cleaner transmission path? Stronger/newer processing? Better source material? Greater RF over the coverage area? If any of those is true, your processing concerns may expand to fixing other things too.

Whether you have a direct competitor in the market or not, still get to know each station’s particular sound. This will help you rate the market overall and help you in designing your custom audio signature sound. Some markets are softer. Some are loud and very competitive with high MPX density levels. Some just sound poor across the dial.



Too often there is a desire to purchase a new processor without a clear reason. Understanding your reasons and budget constraints will go a long way in making an informed choice.

Is your processor older and not as competitive or clean-sounding? Do you need to feed a new DAB or HD channel, and your processor does not support that? Did your current unit die of old age or a lightning strike? Is it time to standardize processing or stereo generators across the network? Are ratings slipping That’s a common reason given, but a processor is not always a ratings cure.

What’s the budget? How much processing can you afford? Or better yet, do you need to buy the top-level box when something less costly might do?

I frequently get into a discussion about goals and budget with an operator only to find out that what they already have meets their goals; in other cases, I may determine that while an operator thought they could make do with what they already own, it becomes clear they cannot. Each situation is unique.



If you are going to make a purchasing decision you should know what your choices are.

Sure, most of us in the radio business know the top brands and may even know the current model(s). But do you know about processors designed, manufactured and sold around the world? Processing philosophies and design various around the world; perhaps there is a “sound” you can import that your listeners will gravitate to.

Do you know how each brand sounds or the benefit of one versus another? Do you know “street price” for every model? Do you know which features require an additional fee for extra outputs like one for HD or an internet stream? Do you know if there are forthcoming firmware updates which may add improvements which could influence your decision? Do you have contacts at the manufacturer or their reps who can explain these things or set up a demo?


“Do you process your stream with as much thought and attention to detail as your terrestrial signal? About half of the stations I listen to online are not paying attention to their digital asset audio processing.”



I visit broadcast facilities that have PDs or engineers who are adept at processing and know how to install and tune a box. I also run into places where outside expertise can add considerable value.

There are many important and critical steps in setting up a new processor. There are the technical transmission settings such as input, output, pilot injection, sample rates, input switching, network IP parameters, and other interfaces. Then there are the hundreds (yes, hundreds) of individual processing settings to tailor the audio to your preferences.

Even in situations where a station has in-house processing expertise, it can help to get an objective opinion from individual who has a toolkit of presets and starting points to speed the adjustment process. It is also good insurance to have a consultant to ensure the transmission parameters are set correctly and legally.

Many newer processors have non-expert modes that make the tailoring of the sound easier with fewer settings. However, in some instances, such as very competitive situations, “expert” mode may be the best way to achieve that perfect signature sound.

A consultant can help with the selection process as well as performing a full technical review of the plant.



Local stations may need one set of features while network, enterprise or state-owned broadcasters may require a different set. Here’s a series of questions you might consider, and topics to research.

Do you know what MPX over IP is? (Hint, it is one the latest techniques for sending your composite MPX over IP to your transmitter.) Do you know who offers that and in what configuration(s)?

Do you know what composite EQ is? What is pilot protection? What is SSB and DSB and why might that matter to you?

How many digital and analog inputs and outputs do you need? Which boxes offer how many of each?

Do you want a box that can generate dynamic RDS? How many bands of AGC and limiting would work best for your format and desired sound?

Do you want dual power supplies or some form of additional redundancy? Are you interested in processors that can run in a virtual environment and is that something you should be interested in?

Do you need GPS sync for your stereo generator, say for an SFN? Did you know that many processors sold today have hard-drive storage to hold music and imaging so that if your studio playout system (or studio altogether) goes offline, you’ll still be on the air?

Do you need SNMP monitoring? Do you know what de-clipping is? Phase correction? Do you want to feed your analog transmitter, digital transmitter and internet stream simultaneously? Do you need ratings encoding or a ratings encoder patch-point?

I could fill pages with features you might consider. Do your research and get to know what features matter and why they matter, then overlay that with your market research.



Understand you air chain from microphone to speaker. Literally.

I visit many stations whose managers complain about their sound and ask for processing adjustments or a processor to “fix” it. I almost always find weak links in their audio path that contribute to the quality issue.

Sure, they may need a new processor. Sure, they may need careful adjusting and tweaking. However, other things need to be addressed too. At the top of the list and most often is source material.

I still find plenty of MP3s on the playout system hard drive. I’ve been to stations with hundreds of MP3s (with bit rates between 96 and 192) and they wonder why their sound is not as clean or lush as the other stations in the market. I very rarely find a hard drive that doesn’t have at least a few MP3s.

Beware — several playout systems rename MP3 to WAV and increase the file size; that will fake you out. You need special tools to scan the library and find these fake files. More on source material below.

I also see STL paths that have issues. Does your feed to the transmitter use an uncompressed audio path or is it something lossy? Is your sample rate 44.1 kHz or 32 kHz? How many A/D and D/A conversions are in the path?

Also I still find digital consoles that use their analog output to feed a digital STL. I see playout systems using their analog outputs to feed a digital console. Even with AoIP systems — which you’d think by definition would be all-digital — it is possible to find analog ins/outs used for playout systems, emergency alerting interrupt boxes and feeds to the transmitter.

Each analog to digital conversion (or the other way around) is another point of degradation. These weak points between console and transmitter add up; while one thing alone might not be noticeable, several together can be.

The road to excellent sound is not just about the box, it’s about the entire system.



You know this saying but it certainly applies to processing: Garbage In = Garbage Out.

In over 90% of stations I visit, I find at least several source material violations: MP3s, low sample rates, recordings from imperfect masters, etc. This is what I tell every PD, MD, and APD I meet.

We all know MP3s are a no-no. Resist the urge to download material from YouTube or iTunes or some other source.

I often hear that a particular MP3 files is the result of not knowing where to find the older material. There are sources for CD quality (or better) versions of almost anything — many are online for download. There are companies that can provide a fully loaded hard drive with your specific music and in true PCM WAV uncompressed format. Do your research, put the effort in, and ensure you have the best material.

Sometimes the issue isn’t the file format but the actual source. There are plenty of forums online that discuss the best masters, greatest hit collections and top picks by audiophiles for various artists. Google is your friend.

Did you know that among several discs by ABBA, some are considered far better quality than others?

Read this interesting discussion.

Use your ears. If you hear a song on your station that doesn’t sound quite right, go back and research the cut. If you can’t determine where it came from, get a copy of known quality.

If you run HD or DAB, you already know those digital signals use a codec. If you play an MP3 file — which already is a lossy format — over an HD/DAB channel, you end up with cascading codecs. In other words, the sound quality may even be worse when listened on the digital carrier.


“Know your competitors. Get to know their transmission paths including console, STL, transmitter, age of equipment, and, of course, the processing they use.”



It takes time to perfect an audio signature. It can take days or weeks to get that perfect audio signature. Take your time.

Some of the best sounding stations around the world have taken their time to “dial in” their settings. It is rare to design a sophisticated, nuanced and consistent sound in one day.

Yes, processors come with presets that get you in the ballpark. And, yes, as a result you can have a decent sounding station quickly, assuming you don’t have other severe audio chain problems, very poor source material, etc. But, for that perfect market-leading sound, it takes time to “process beyond the preset.”

For example after a processor is adjusted, all parties should take a break, sleep and then listen again. Your ears get fatigued after hours of listening and adjusting. They can confuse you. Sleep on it and see how things sound when your ears are fresh. In some cases, as you get closer, it’s helpful to wait a week or two and listen afresh. The longer period also allows you to listen to various content samples to ensure that the sound is consistent across sources.

If you are an oldies or 80s station or play music across several decades, finding a balanced sound that works for every cut can be challenging. The way music was mastered and produced in the 1970s is different from how it was done in the 80s and way different then say, Dua Lipa in 2020.

And, yes, there are stations that play Madonna, Van Halen and Dua Lipa in the same hour. I worked on one recently and it required careful attention to detail to sound consistent throughout the day.

Fortunately, many of the modern processors have great tool-sets to help with this issue.



The process of processing can be complicated by the need for more than one person to agree on the results.

You may be working alongside a PD, OM, GM, programming consultant or owner who “thinks” they know audio. And perhaps they do— but will they all agree on what good sound is? Chances are, no.

Audio processing is very subjective. What one person thinks is the perfect low-end or vocal mix might sound horrible to another.

If you are the person with fingers on the knobs, your bedside manner and maturity will become crucial in these situations.

Don’t be offended if someone says they don’t like the sound. Don’t be frustrated if it takes several iterations to get consensus. And you may never get 100% agreement.

To avoid problems I’ll ask, at the beginning, to know who makes the final call. It may be the PD of the brand or the PD plus the general manager. Sometimes, it’s the owner too. Try to limit decision-making team to very few people.

I’ve been asked as a processing consultant to be the one to make the final call. I inquire about the goals; for example, maybe everyone thinks the high-end needs to be cranked yet they’ve also said that TSL matters. In a situation like that, I may advise that too much high-end could risk tuneout and lower TSL.



Listen in your car, your GM’s car, your PD's car and your best friends’ cars. Listen on a clock radio (especially in mono), on different smart speakers, and through the type of headphones/earbuds typically worn by your listeners.

Your signature will sound different depending on where and what you are listening to. Ensure that the sound is acceptable across most devices and speakers. It’s OK to tweak based on what you hear. The goal is a nice balance so that the station sounds great on small speakers and big ones alike.

Be honest with yourself. You may have achieved what you think is the best low-end you’ve ever heard ... in your car. Then, you listen in another car and wonder why it’s overwhelming. Don’t ignore it, go back and carefully find the right balance.

Remember the politics. The PD may be listening in their car and will legitimately hear things differently than you do. The audience will too. This is another reason finding that perfect sound takes time.

That being said, you can chase your tail forever if you make an adjustment every time you receive a comment or listen to a new device; know when to stop. Keeping the decision team small will help with this.



These include your streams, Alexa, YouTube, FB, IG, etc. There are smart speakers, mobile apps and other ways in which your product is distributed.

Do you process your stream with as much thought and attention to detail as your terrestrial signal? About half of the stations I listen to online are not paying attention to their digital asset audio processing.

Consider using your main processor if that’s technically feasible. If not, use a separately purchased processor designed for digital streaming, an older model laying around the station left over from a previous upgrade (something is better than nothing), or one of the many great software-based processors you can find online.

Some manufacturers do offer software that can be used for streaming; many will run on the same PC your streaming encoder resides on. There are also hardware-based streaming appliances with built-in processing.

But don’t forget, processing for streaming requires a sound that’s great across various devices.

Digital processing design does not have all the same considerations as AM or FM transmission. For instance, analog FM is limited to 15 kHz frequency response while your stream might go out to 20 kHz. There is no 50us or 75us equalization curve.

Pay attention to your bit rates — don’t dip too low. There are several very good white papers on streaming across the web and located on the sites of audio processing manufacturers.

Streaming audio, done properly, will sound amazing — better than the analog terrestrial signal.


The author is owner of Kline Consulting Group LLC. He has held technical positions with several major broadcast organizations, most notably as senior VP of engineering at Cumulus Media. He has provided engineering support and consulting in the United States, Canada, China and several South American countries. He is a past recipient of the Radio World Excellence in Engineering Award.

Broadcast Continuity in a Pandemic

Engineers shared ideas about workflows during a special TWiRT episode

TOM VERNON | Radio World | May 29, 2020

“Always have a backup” has been a mantra of radio engineers since the earliest days of broadcasting. Much time and energy has been spent developing disaster recovery plans that outline responses to fires, floods, tornadoes and other cataclysmic events.

But the outbreak of COVID-19 required most station employees, including air staff, to work at home for extended periods of time, a contingency that some engineers might wish they’d spent more time considering.

Lessons learned in the first weeks of the pandemic were discussed in an interesting episode of “This Week in Radio Tech (TWiRT),” hosted by Kirk Harnack, senior systems consultant for The Telos Alliance, and Chris Tobin, IP solutionist. They convened a special edition to talk about “Broadcast Continuity in a Pandemic,” sharing experiences in adapting station workflows and technology.

Codecs and Chromebooks
Geary Morrill is regional director of engineering at Alpha Media USA, an early adopter of the WideOrbit 4.0. He said that platform was being used by those working at home for remote access to the station via iPad and iPhone apps, mainly for recording and voice track activities.

Robbie Green, director of technical operations at Entercom Houston, said his employer created a work-from-home protocol for most staff, although air talent was still in the building. Should it become necessary for them to leave, equipment was set up so they can voice track from home. For the sports staff, he purchased a number of Comrex Opal IP Audio Gateways, as well as refurbished Chromebooks to equip remote kits.

Green said that the cluster’s building includes 600,000 feet of rentable space, of which the station occupies half. If someone working there were to become infected, building management would have to close the building for decontamination, so plans were developed for that eventuality.

A challenge facing many broadcasters, including Green, is how to handle the generation of logs. “Our traffic people have been working remotely for over a week, and program directors can also do logs remotely. We have a secure portal where they can dump everything into our WideOrbit system.”

Tom McGinley, chief engineer at KUFM(FM/TV), engineering manager at Townsquare Media in Missoula, Mont., and Radio World technical advisor, said that a global pandemic occurs about once every hundred years. If this outbreak had happened 20 years ago, he said, broadcasters wouldn’t have had the internet and IP connectivity we have today. The challenge would have been much greater for stations merely to stay on the air.

With no confirmed cases of COVID-19 in his area at the time of the podcast, McGinley said buildings were still accessible for talent. Traffic was being managed off-site through an internet connection. Plans were underway to do live shows remotely via Comrex Access gear, along with RCS NexGen iPush and Remote. McGinley added that the stations were already planning an upgrade to RCS Zetta, which has more flexibility for remote broadcast.

“This is What We Do”
Consultant Gary Kline applauded the efforts of broadcast engineers worldwide. Rising to unexpected challenges and having solutions ready before management knows to ask is “what we do,” he said. Kline praised codec manufacturers whose shipping departments worked overtime in March and April to make sure broadcasters got the tools they needed to stay on the air.

He said that while there has been growing awareness in recent years of the need to prepare for disasters, not all contingencies have been addressed.

“Many stations would have emergency generators as well as backup IP and internet facilities,” he said, describing conversations with clients, “but I would ask ‘What if you have to leave your building?’ and they weren’t so sure about that. Next time, we’ll be so much better prepared for something like this, so there is a silver lining to the story.”

Jim Armstrong, director of eastern U.S. sales at the Telos Alliance, has fielded a lot of questions about accessing equipment such as consoles off-site.

“I tell everyone, it’s just a remote broadcast, only from your home.” One aspect that sometimes gets overlooked is that most AoIP consoles can be operated remotely, and routing switchers can also be controlled off-site.

Several software products are available to fill these needs. There’s third-party software from IP Studios in Paris that runs IP tablet software. He discussed Axia SoftSurface, a program that connects to an engine or console to control the mix bus and faders, and Axia Pathfinder Core Pro, a development tool that allows users to create a virtual Fusion console.

He praised radio engineers for their handling of the situation and joked that a person is not really in radio until they’ve slept at the station, a rite of passage.

Bill Bennett, media solutions manager for ENCO Systems, talked about how stations could access and use their automation playout systems remotely.

For some time, he said, automation has meant servers in the studios plus some form of offsite backup. The cloud has experienced explosive growth over the past 15 years. Engineers have gotten comfortable with the idea of the cloud as a place to store data offsite and as part of their backup plans.

ENCO’s current automation playout system has a web interface, the front of which is HTML5-compliant so it can run on a browser. At the same time, the software is running on a virtual machine in the cloud.

Another bit of software keeps the virtual machine in sync with the studio machine over a VPN line.

An important consideration is keeping viruses that might infect the studio machine from reaching the virtual machine in the cloud. Harnack noted that Paravel Systems’ Rivendell 3.0, the open source automation playout system, is capable of running from the cloud during disasters.

With this type of system in place, all that is necessary in emergencies is to access the virtual machine via a laptop, and route a stream to the transmitter.

Also participating in the conversation were Mike Sprysenski, regional director of engineering at iHeartMedia, and Bryan Waters, chief engineer at Cumulus Media, Atlanta. The podcast can be accessed at, or you can watch the full episode below.

Chris Tobin had the last word, talking about understanding workflow solutions. Air talent may be accustomed to working in front of a console and a stack of three audio devices and hotkeys to fire things off. They won’t have those at home and may experience initial stress if everything is different. The goal of the engineer should be to know the workflow of your announcers off-site, and try to make it as similar to the studio environment as possible.

Lightning Round
Harnack asked panelists for words of wisdom that could fit in 30 seconds or less.

Bill Bennett — Use two-factor authentication for network authentication and file access. Yes, it’s more complicated and slows things down, but much more secure.

Gary Kline — Ask yourself who is your backup if you become sick or quarantined. Formally designate someone if you need to.

Geary Morrill — Keep an even keel and be patient with staff as they adapt to the unfamiliar. People will feed off your emotional state.

Jim Armstrong — Have essential spares on the shelf. Remember that you don’t really need it until you need it, and then you really do.

Mike Sprysenski — Remember to take care of yourself as you’re taking care of everybody else.

Bryan Waters — Keep it simple. Give people what they need to work from home, but don’t overwhelm or complicate.

Robbie Green — Create documentation that’s written for the non-technical person. Have someone do a test drive with it before you distribute.

Tom McGinley — Look for the silver linings as this situation winds down. Expect a new level of competence from stations as they revise disaster recovery plans.



10 Cybersecurity Questions to Ask Yourself

OK, more than 10 ... here’s a list to help you get started on your program

Gary Kline | FUTURE, Radio World | April 2020

I wrote a list of cyber best practices that appeared in a Radio World ebook in November, before the current global crisis. RW asked me to revisit and update it given that broadcasters have rushed to find new ways of doing business centered around remote operations and heavy use of the internet.
There are thousands of announcers, accounting managers, inventory and scheduling staff, programming and music directors, operations directors, engineering managers and other station personnel operating from their homes. How are we handling the IT security and defenses of our operations?
Many of us had to scramble to facilitate multiple work-at-home solutions. Safe practices may have been ignored because the priority was saving businesses or informing our communities.
So now is a good time to assess and reassess. Remember, holes may exist now where they didn’t before, because of emergency actions you took to allow for outside access to systems in your building or transmitter site.
As I wrote in the original version of this article, cybersecurity is a top priority for businesses of all sizes; a lack of readiness and defenses can lead to serious financial and operational consequences. Cyber extortion (ransomware) is big business and is not going away any- time soon. The following questions and thoughts are a place to start in hardening your broadcast organization’s infrastructure and preparing for the worst case.

#1. Do you have a security-aware culture in your facility? In your organization? Be honest. Knowing that your IT staff or outside contractor installed a new firewall or virus program last year doesn’t mean you are fully prepared. It does not necessarily mean you have a constant security-aware culture that involves regular routines such as:
a. Backing up crucial data to both a local machine and the cloud and ensuring at least one of the backups is *not* connected to the network source it is backing up.
b. Updates and patches are run regularly on all devices such as firewalls, switches, PCs, IOT, etc. We say this all the time but so many facilities do not do it.
c. An ongoing awareness and training program for all existing and new employees across all departments. Many attacks arrive via a simple email. Educate everyone about what to look for.
d. Anti-virus and anti-malware software installed on every machine — sounds like Security 101, right? I find machines all the time that are not running both and/or not updated recently with the latest security databases.
e. Implemented security restrictions and locked all outside access except where needed. Don’t laugh. I find VPN and Remote Desktop active on machines often, and no one remembers who they were for or what the original purpose was.
f. Block all known malicious IP addresses and keep that list constantly updated.
g. Keep track of every employee or contractor to whom you gave outside access. Make sure you have a list of their names, systems given access to, and method (VPN, TeamViewer, VNC, public IP, etc.)
This is just a sample listing of key things a security-aware organization should be doing. There are many more. IT trained professionals in cyber-security know what to do. There are also many excellent sites online with guidelines that dig deeper than we can here.

#2. Along with #1 above, when was the last time you had a serious sit-down with your IT team, administrator or outside contractor to discuss cybersecurity? How often do you meet? In that meeting, did you know what specific questions to ask? If not, it is time to put together a list of questions. This article can help you get started.
Given the current COVID-19 situation and the fact that you’ve made changes internally to allow for remote access, now is the time for a video conference with the team to inform and discuss any weaknesses. As a team, you can decide what loopholes should be closed now — prioritize any risks should they exist.

#3. Have you considered hiring a third-party outside security consultant to help with assessing your internal and external systems for their penetrability? Have you asked a trusted security expert to attempt to penetrate your network and systems to ensure you are defended properly?
I know several broadcast-related companies that send phishing emails with fake viruses and ransomware to employees to test their cyber training; see 1(c) above. If the employee clicks on the suspicious attachment, they are provided further training on how to spot these things. The email gateway still ranks as one of the top arrival vectors for attack, so it is critical that everyone have some training on how to spot that one email which can cause you untold hardships.

#4. Is your network segregated to minimize the damage if something should get through? I often find that networks within the station are combined, on purpose or by mistake. I’ve been in several facilities where they claim their networks are segregated, yet we find that’s not the case.
For example, a PC with a double-NIC (two network cards for separate networks) can be compromised and certain viruses can jump from one network to the other. So the machine that handles traffic but must connect to the automation system — and it is using two network cards — might not be as safe as you thought. Or that one PC that has Remote Desktop on it so someone can get into the network but only though that one “external” machine ... well, it may not be the “firewall” you think it is.
There are ways to handle remote access properly and securely. Your trained IT staff or outside security contractor can help you with this.
During the COVID-19 crisis many stations have found themselves needing remote access to their automation playout systems. Normally, as a cyber best practice, these machines are locked down and disconnected from the public internet. If remote capability existed, it was usually through very secure login and VPN methods. I’ve seen many stations in the past month or so that did not have remote access set up allowing their client and server playout machines to be connected to the outside internet. This was done in a hurry and under emergency conditions; some buildings were cleared out almost overnight. If you are one of these facilities, follow #2 above. Make sure management is aware of these temporary weaknesses and address a plan to close the gaps looking forward. You may need this capability in the future, but now you’ll have time to prepare better with more secure access procedures.

#5. Backup, backup, backup. I mentioned this, but it is so important to preventing disaster that it deserves its own reference. It is imperative that you regularly backup all critical files, and do so to locations that cannot be reached by the virus. There are several cases where ransomware found its way to a network backup and encrypted the very files that were supposed to protect the operation!
Do you backup every 24 hours? Do you maintain backups offsite? (That’s not only a good idea for protection against the virus but also for events such as fire, hurricanes, other things that could keep you from accessing the studio or transmitter location). With backups you can reinstall critical software and data and potentially alleviate the need to pay a ransom. Or it may simply be less costly in time and resources to restore a machine using a recent backup then using a decryption tool. Therefore, very regular backups are crucial.
If for example, you need to restore your music and spot commercial database and audio files quickly, you’ll want that backup to be very recent. Otherwise, you may lose the past several days or weeks of new material — and this could cost the station financially.
I often come across TOCs that supposedly are making backups but are not. The backup tape machine hasn’t worked in who knows how long, the NAS drive is full, the software that runs the backups hasn’t been running for weeks or months, or perhaps the directories selected for backup are not correct.
The takeaway here is that you should ask yourself or your IT administrator for proof that backups are being run, and run often, on a regular recurring basis.

#6. If you are attacked, do you have the tools in place to quickly detect and determine its origination point within your facility? Do you have the tools (and instructions to staff) in place to isolate the virus or ransomware quickly? Do you use a security event manager? What is your “first 15 minutes” plan?
As mentioned, network segregation is critical in situations where you become infected. If the business network is infected, for example, do you have a way to prevent this attack from spreading to other business networks in your building or within the company (for larger networks or group operators)? Do you have different offices tied together using a WAN/MPLS or other means that might allow the virus to hop over and then start spreading again in an entirely different location?
If you believe a virus is crawling through your network, do you have a plan in place to stop it immediately from moving further along to the next server or PC? Do you know how to kill your network shares immediately? Do you have a plan to yank users and machines from the network in seconds?
What if an attack happens at 3 a.m. on Sunday morning? Do you have the technology or people in place to alert the proper team leaders? And do you have a response go-team on call including holidays?
This is not make-believe or a far-out fantasy. These attacks are happening regularly to small and large operators, and of course, in all industries.

#7. If your data becomes encrypted, do you have a plan of action filed away so you know what to do? Have you thought about whether you would pay a ransom if presented with such a demand?
There are different schools of thought on whether to pay. Many have paid, and many have not. It is reported by Symantec that only 47% of those who pay the ransom to the bad guys get their data back. It is also claimed by several reputable security firms that if you do pay this time there is a chance you will be hit again because the data kidnappers know you will give in. (Of course, we all know you will be fully protected after the first successful ransom, right?).
Let’s say you don’t pay; better have your recent backups ready to go. Do you have a backup system that provides for restoral easily and quickly? Do you have a go-team put together who will be ready to restore systems and a chain of command to direct team members on what to do and when? (See #6).
If you decide to pay, most ransoms are paid with bitcoin; do you know how to purchase bitcoin? Do you know from where? It can take a few days to obtain bitcoin, depending on how you buy it. Major cities have bitcoin-capable ATMs that can speed this up. The average ransom ranges from a few thousand to much higher. Do you have a source for that kind of money in a hurry should you need it?
Now is the time to think about these things and have a plan written down. If you don’t, you may be scrambling at the last minute while your critical systems are down. That kind of delay can cost you money because your operations are down. If you work with an outside security expert or have such staff internally, and you are not sure what your plans are should you get attacked, ask for one. Do not be unprepared.
On a positive note: Did you know that some ransomware attacks use a software variant that has a free cure? There are free decryption tools out there that might work in your case. Something to check first.

#8. Some ransomware attacks are widespread. We’ve all heard about them. You’ll see them on TV and on most credible news and IT websites quickly. In some cases, these large-scale attacks are shut down and decrypted within 24 to 48 hours by law enforcement or white hat hackers. If you are affected by one of these large-scale attacks, check with your security provider, consultant, vendor or IT staff to see if there is a fix before paying any ransom.

#9. If you are in the United States, contact the nearest field office of the FBI or Secret Service and report your ransomware event and request assistance. They may be able to help you. If you are in Europe, go to the Europol website and it will direct you to the local agency in your country. If in Australia, report your event to the Australian Cyber Security Centre. Most countries have a governmental agency that wants to hear from you.

#10. Ask for help. I say this often. Do not be afraid to ask for help. Whether you are a managing director or engineer and IT director, it is OK to ask for resources to assist you with cyber-security. You have friends who know things. You have vendors who know things and who have internal resources to assist you with this. There are local IT firms with experts. Consultants. Lots of free advice on the internet. The United States and many other governments provide free information on ransomware, viruses and other forms of malware.
Now, more than ever, we are all coming together to help one another. I’ve seen hundreds of posts online (on the various broadcast-related social platforms) from broadcast engineers, offering advice and asking questions on every imaginable topic related to COVID-19. If you need help with setting up a SIP connection to a mobile phone, there are plenty of people who will help you. Do you need help with remote access to a specific playout system? Just reach out to your vendor or another engineer. Some vendors are offering free versions/use of their remote packages. Every manufacturer and engineer are working together to help one another. I’ve said this before: This is what we do every day; we help stations stay on the air. Even from home!

I walk into too many facilities that are not prepared defensively and that starts at the top. Go back to #1 above. Make sure you have a security-aware culture. Many stations have had to make tough decisions recently on what rules to relax and where the cost/benefit/risk balance lies. This is a decision that is unique to every facility. We are all having to do things differently now than before. Make sure you’ve kept track of what you’ve done so you can go back and close the loopholes. Prepare a list of necessary hardware/software that you can present for approval for things you may need to do this again but with additional security (if needed).

Gary Kline is a broadcast consultant who has held technical positions with several major broadcast organizations, most notably as senior VP of engineering at Cumulus Media. He has provided engineering support and consulting in the United States, Canada, China and several South American countries. He is a past recipient of the Radio World Excellence in Engineering Award.

Original Article: VIEW PDF

"This Is What We Do. We Keep Stations on the Air No Matter What"

We asked consultant Gary Kline how operations are reacting to the coronavirus impact

By Paul McLane | Radio World

Technical consultant Gary Kline, who also contributes regularly to Radio World, travels a great deal both domestically and abroad; he is in frequent contact with many radio industry organizations. We asked him what he’s been hearing over the past several days about the impact of COVID-19 around the U.S. radio industry.

RW: Based on what you hear from clients or others, what impact is the coronavirus national emergency having on U.S. radio station operations?

Gary Kline: For most stations, it hasn’t yet caused serious disruptions to programming or reliability of distribution (RF, streaming, on-demand, etc.). There has been, and there will continue to be, financial implications both on the revenue and expense side.

I’m already hearing of reduced capital expenditures – not surprising at a time like this. There have been some reports in the trades about folks being asked to work from home including broadcasting from home. I think we may see more of this work from outside the studios as more staff (or the people they’ve had contact with) test positive for the virus.

I think it is safe to say as time goes on there will be more changes. These changes in operations may touch upon all departments including engineering, sales, finance, traffic, promotions, management, etc.

RW: Are there specific impacts in technical infrastructure and programming operations we need to think about?

Kline: I think the biggest impact happening right now is the need to work or broadcast from home. Not unlike so many other businesses asking their employees to stay home, radio operators are doing the same with their non-essential staff.

The good news is that for many stations, remote access has been in place in one form or another. Traffic can operate remotely using VPN or other specialized remote access software. The same goes for music scheduling and even the automation/playout system. Many stations have been utilizing some form of remote voice tracking for years.

The good news is that for many stations, remote access has been in place in one form or another.

Therefore, the basic elements of operating a radio cluster are routine for most stations. For those that don’t have one piece in place, it’s not too hard to call your vendor for your traffic, CRM or playout system and ask for their remote access package. You may also need some help from your engineer or IT department/contractor to adjust the firewall and security settings to make everything work.

That being said: I think what we are seeing now though is a much greater emphasis on these remote systems and, in some cases, not enough capacity or hardware to accommodate ALL the stations in a building at one time.

For example, if you have four or five or even six stations with live or live-assist morning shows in your building, is there enough remote technology to handle all those at once? Is there enough gear in someone’s living room to handle things like putting phone callers on the air without a board op back at the studio? Are the facilities ready for total remote control of the console etc.? Can you produce spots remotely and insert them into the log? Can you trigger EAS remotely? Do you own enough IP codecs or apps to simultaneously feed each studio?

RW: What impact is the emergency having on engineers and technical staff, either professionally or personally?

Kline: Most of the engineers I have spoken with have been busy making plans for the remote operation of station business systems in addition to complete remote broadcasting for every one of their stations in a cluster. This is so that if the building needs to be emptied due to a prolonged cleaning and/or company required work-at-home policies, things continue to run. Most facilities had something in place to do these things already, but not always for every station simultaneously. In some cases, the equipment existed but was not configured for exactly the purpose of total remote broadcasting. So, engineers now find themselves re-configuring systems and designing more elaborate command and control procedures for use externally.

RW: Engineers are often asked to be the ones who step in when other staffers have to step out. We’ve heard from at least one engineer who has been told that if further quarantines come into play, he’ll be the one living and sleeping at the studios. Are there any special best practices that engineers and their employers will adopt?

Kline: I think most engineers will tell you that they’ve been through various emergencies, crisis situations, weather related disasters, and as such are doing what they always do in challenging situations, they excel under pressure and rise to the occasion. This is what we do, we keep stations on the air no matter what. We adapt and we innovate. That’s the impact this has on an engineer. On a personal note, I am sure that we are all concerned about contracting the virus, ensuring our families and family are safe as well as our colleagues. Right now, it is all hands-on deck in getting ready for the worst case – prolonged remote station operation.

Most engineers will tell you that they’ve been through various emergencies, crisis situations, weather related disasters, and as such are doing what they always do in challenging situations, they excel under pressure and rise to the occasion

RW: What else should we know?

Kline: All the things that need to be done to prepare technically…. Do them now. Right now. Because if tomorrow you must clear out your facility, you may not be ready to operate it from a different (or multiple) locations. It can happen overnight so don’t delay. If you need extra gear, borrow or purchase it right now. If you need to bring extra engineering help in to re-configure your facility, add remote software, program your router, do it now. Do not wait. If you use contract engineering, remember they may be busy helping many other owners so call them today. Some of the preparations may require technical folks visit the homes of staff including air staff – this may not be possible at some point so get on it now. Make sure everyone knows what their role is and make sure you have understudies for key roles. Have a backup engineer and IT person on call – even if it is a contractor.

We don’t want to think about these things – but if your engineer tests positive, what will you do? What will you do if your transmitter goes down or automation system crashes and your engineer is quarantined for a month or more? There are people out there that can help you produce a technical plan to ensure business operations continue if you need the help. There are many different systems which must operate in harmony to fully operate a facility from the outside – do a dry run this week. For smaller operations with a handful of employees, it only takes one or two positive tests to create a major kink in your local operations.

Original Article: 

Tips for Interviewing the Candidate

Gary Kline | RADIO ENGINEERING IN CRISIS, Radio World | January 2020

Here are some of the things any manager (engineering or general) should be thinking about when trying to hire a prospective candidate. Having hired numerous people for technical roles for more than 20 years, I’ve met many candidates from all walks of life and geographic regions. Their needs and wants (not always the same thing) may vary a bit; but most want to know about one or more of these things:

Salary— Most candidates do expect to be paid fairly and commensurate with their experience and based upon the requirements of the new job. Title and market size may factor into their mindset. Usually, but not always, they do have an expectation that they will be paid more than their last position. Engineering salaries are climbing as the supply of experienced and trustworthy candidates dwindles.
Be very careful about convincing someone to take the job for less than they are truly worth. It is my experience that they will be plucked away by another station or station group. Again, that’s not a given but it does raise the chances this will happen.
This applies to newer less-experienced candidates too. You could end up training them for a year or two only to have an offer made to them for significantly more than your paying them if you do not pay competitively. And, yes, you might have an opportunity to offer an increase to keep them when the time comes, but you’ll likely end up paying more to do this in the end.

Reporting structure— Many candidates you interview will be very interested to understand who they will be reporting to directly. That may be the director of engineering if they are applying for an assistant or staff level position. It may be the OM/PD if that’s how the station cluster was configured in the past; some GMs thought it best to do this since the DOE/CE ends up working most closely with the OM/PD on a day-to-day basis anyway. And in many cases, the CE/DOE reports directly to the station manager (GM/MM).
It is my experience that in most situations it is best to have the CE/DOE report to the GM/MM and that the position be defined as a department head. They can work day to day with the OM/PD and anyone else that makes sense, but structurally they should be accountable to the station manager. And most engineering candidates going after a top-level position do want that. They should be included in weekly department head meetings in addition to a minimum once-a-week one on one with their direct supervisor.

Job Description— This sounds like a no-brainer. It is important to have a job description that is well thought out so that there are no questions about expectations and responsibilities. Along with accountability comes responsibilities. There’s a very good chance you have this in some form already because you needed it for the recruiting process. You can’t simply think of or list everything an engineer or IT candidate should do as part of their job, but you can properly describe the role such that everyone understands the overall expectations. Any candidate who has experience as a broadcast engineer should come to the table with a decent understanding of what is required of them.
This process ensures that you have something to refer to in the future should there be a need. Broadcast engineers work very hard but do want to make sure that the hours and on-call expectations are reasonable among other unique requirements that come along with the territory. You know, like playing with high voltage. Whether they articulate this or not during the interview, it matters to them.

Growth— Not everyone you interview will be looking to grow. Some technical candidates are content to settle into a nice working environment at a good location, and do their job well. But there are others who are interested in growing.
They may want to know about opportunities to grow within the cluster, regionally if a larger company, or even to a corporate position one day. If you are asked, be prepared to discuss this with them. You may need to talk to regional or corporate engineering management in advance of the interview or telephone discussion. Every company has a plan for growth for those who desire it, the main takeaway here is to be prepared to discuss it. If they are interviewing with different companies at the same time this could be a deal breaker.

Condition of the physical facilities— Good, qualified candidates will ask to see the studios and transmitter sites before they take the job. They should unless your facility is one that’s been published or reviewed in the past few years or has photos online. In most instances, people are looking for a more modern plant that is not a rats’ nest of wiring, has transmitter sites that use newer transmitters and have redundancy, and a general sense that the facility will not consume a majority of their time “putting out fires.” There are exceptions of course. Some engineers do want something to sink their teeth into and clean up, but only if management can convince them that there will be the funds and support to do that. Sometimes, there is a capital budget already approved to build a new site or new studio(s) or purchase new transmitters — it’s just that the cluster needs someone to implement it. Those are also good attractors of top talent.

Station vehicle (honorable mention)— If your market doesn’t have a decent, working, dedicated and properly sized engineering department vehicle, you might consider obtaining one. Especially if any of your transmitter sites are distant and/or hard to get to because of bad roads, snow, etc. Most experienced and qualified candidates do consider having an engineering vehicle an important tool towards performing their duties. This is not always the case, but I have seen it in a majority of the hires I have been involved with.

The author is owner of Kline Consulting and former corporate director of engineering and broadcast IT for several radio companies.

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European Radio Show: The Future of Audio Under GAFA Hegemony

Should radio rename to audio? “It must be done today.” Live from the European Radio Show

At the European Radio and Digital Audio Show in Paris, a three-day exhibition and presentation conference, one of the panels turned its focus to the future of radio in the next few years. A persistent and sometimes controversial point was whether to rebrand the radio industry to “audio.” As noted onstage, European radio is a few years behind American radio on this question — Philippe Generali, CEO of RCS, noted that iHeartMedia routinely calls itself the “largest audio company in the U.S.”

Other panelists were James Cridland (radio futurologist and founder/editor of Podnews) and Alexandre Saboundjian (CEO, Targetspot). The conversation was moderated by Gary Kline who runs a consultancy in Atlanta. This panel was conducted in English; every other word we have heard spoken at this event has been in French.

There was general agreement among the panelists that “audio” put a larger, more contemporary umbrella over the radio industry in an increasingly digital and on-demand era. Saboundjian focused on the sales side, saying that advertisers wanted to buy “audio,” not “radio.” Answering an audience question, he said, “You need to organize your company to appeal to your clients. The danger is big companies like Google taking revenue.”

In fact, the session started off with James Cridland sketching the competitive landscape. shadowed as it is by behemoth new competitors to radio — Spotify, Apple, Google, Amazon. (Or, in a different acronymed lineup that was invoked during the discussion, GAFA: Google Apple Facebook Amazon).

Saboundjian expressed a moderate stance, that radio must adapt, but it is not a red-alert emergency of a business model falling apart overnight. Philippe Generali countered that moderation with an argument: “It must be done today. You have to call yourself an audio company. Own and defend that you are an audio company.”

Cridland’s take: “We’re not in a business of running transmitters, AM, FM, or DAB. Some newspapers thought they were in the business of operating a printing press. They’re not in business anymore. The news organizations that survive are in the business of running a newsroom.” At the same time, Cridland (an outspoken advocate of, and consultant to radio) observed that the personality and one-to-one connection of radio is a key strength, especially compared to music listening in a streaming service. “A human being is a real asset,” he said.

Wrapping up, Alexandre Saboundjian and Philippe Generali agreed that good content is what the business is all about, no matter what it’s called. They both emphasized that advertisers want data, and that U.S. radio is driving down that road.

James Cridland: “Radio isn’t going away fast. We should take advantage of podcasting and other new types of audio.” 

Ten Tips to Help You Create Your Best Studio

Here are some common considerations to keep in mind when designing or renovating a studio

Gary Kline | BUILDING THE IDEAL RADIO STUDIO, Radio World International | December 2019

It’s time to build that new studio (or upgrade an existing one) and everyone on the team is excited. Whether you are constructing a brand new facility or simply renovating it, there are common considerations to keep in mind to ensure you are satisfied with the end result.

#1. What’s ideal? From the outset of designing your new studio you need to ask what the meaning of “ideal” is. After all, there are many opinions on what the ideal studio looks like. Ask your colleagues, program directors, managers and do some online research. Chances are you will get a lot of feedback with varying responses. Write all of them down and prioritize what’s important. This list will likely get filtered and organized based on your budget, timeline and resources. The important takeaway here is that you first think about what is ideal and then define it. Not in a vacuum, but with the meaningful input of your end-users, stakeholders, engineers, and thorough research. Be creative. Be different. But don’t forget an ideal studio should always include good engineering practice.

#2. Organization and structure. Put a project management team in place from the outset. Your project may be just one small studio, or it may be a building full of content-generating technology. It may be limited in scope and budget or it may be very large with many moving parts. Regardless of the project extent, you should have a clearly defined decision-making structure in place. This will help with prioritization and refinement of the myriad of design requirements that you will encounter. When you have several passionate individuals on a design team it takes leadership and structure to make balanced decisions. Studios rarely get built without outside help. Contractors and system integrators may occasionally need assistance navigating a problem or unexpected hiccup. The project leader should be empowered to coordinate and delegate as necessary to deal with such an event.
Good structure also helps to avoid budget issues and schedule delays. As the lead engineer and/or project manager, make sure you are in on the design phase early so you can incorporate critical requirements into the drawings. I’ve seen too many studio designs that were “backed into” because things such as HVAC, MEP, the lobby, the kitchen, or the office space had been designed (perhaps commissioned) before important broadcast technical design considerations were integrated. I’ve also seen leases signed before the technical design team was consulted. Roof rights (and access), satellite dish placement, telecom availability, floor load capacity, microwave path, generator availability and restrictive landlord regulations are just some of the critical issues a person who is not experienced in broadcast technical requirements may overlook.

#3. Reflect on user experience and user interface. Build a modern, impressive and user-friendly studio. Examine every inch of the space you are designing very closely. Carefully consider every decision you make about the location and placement of objects in each individual room. Start with the furniture layout as this is crucial. Furniture design can improve the quality of the on-air content because the layout and look sets the mood (and interaction) in the room. Invest in the nicest looking and well-constructed studio furniture your budget will allow. Things such as video monitor placement, mic arm style and height, lighting, ergonomics, line-of-sight, windows, work-space, control surfaces, table and chair height and room size/layout will have an impact on the user (and guest) experience. Also, consider consolidating different software systems (playout, editing, contesting, call screening, social media, etc.) into one or two screens. This eliminates the wall of monitors many studios have. It also allows for a better and more efficient user interface, while improving line of sight to the other talent or guests in the room.
There are different opinions about what constitutes a good interface and experience for the user. Some people want lots of buttons and flashy lights. Some take a minimalist approach with very little “tech” in the room. Some studios incorporate glass screens for the mixing desk, bypassing the traditional tactile faders and knobs often used. Some people want to sit down, some want stand up and some studios have motorized adjustable furniture height, etc.
Design your UI/UX so that it makes the most sense for your needs. This may require considerable research, time and a team effort to produce a good plan. Organize meetings and interviews with the end users and listen to them. Their input is valuable, as they will use the studio every day. Additionally, your architect, interior designer, studio furniture vendor and even Google can help you with creative ideas.

#4. Acoustics. Stellar room acoustics probably has more to do with the quality of how the announcer or live performance sounds than the fancy electronics you just purchased. Do not underestimate the significance of this. In most radio studio environments, you don’t want a “live” sounding room because that will take away from the intimacy and intelligibility of the air talent. We’ve all heard the hollow or echo effect in a poorly built studio when one or more mics are open. Instituting proper isolation so that there is no sound leakage outward and no external noise inward is imperative. There are ways to quantify isolation such using an STC rating. There are different STC ratings for materials such as sound panels, doors, windows, and external walls. Budget and design requirements will dictate your choice for a minimum STC rating. Each room has its own set of design criteria. Take a newsroom for example. That space may not require isolation, hoping that the inherent background room noise adds additional credibility over the air. This topic is too large to cover everything here. Just keep in mind that acoustical design involves specialized construction techniques and materials, something your architect, interior designer, or acoustical consulting engineer can help you with. If you don’t have the budget to hire a consultant, there are many acoustic design examples online in addition to books and articles. Reach out to your engineering buddies or a mentor and ask them for advice.

#5. Future growth and expansion. It helps to group this subject into categories: Physical growth inside the existing space, growth into an external location, technology upgrades of existing infrastructure, and expansion into new technologies. As you think about the future, here are just a few things to deliberate. Will you need additional studios later? How many? To serve what purpose? Is a particular studio that you are constructing firmly dedicated to a purpose that could change later? Did you leave enough expansion space for additional studios, offices, technology, or a surprise request? Can you add new studios, streams, metadata, storage, and production capability, etc. quickly and cost-effectively? Did you box yourself in with a tech platform that won’t scale as you grow? Did you choose an audio protocol that is too proprietary? Did the business office review your key suppliers’ finances to ensure they will be in business long-term? Have you studied broadcast technology trends to understand what the world might look like in three to five years? Does your physical plant and technology platform lend itself toward those future trends? Again, these are just a few things to think about. So remember to consider the future and its potential impact on what you are building today.

#6. Speaking of technology. What technology will you use? Is there an organized approach to defining and selecting the technologies, which will be the cornerstone of your build out? Almost everyone builds his or her new radio studio using a digital platform. Which AoIP platform and protocol(s) will you use? Is it compatible with other popular formats and equipment? If your facility will be producing video such as visual radio, branded content, or podcasts, have you carefully researched what equipment is needed to do that? Do you understand the special requirements that a podcast creator might need as it relates to technology? Do you have a visual radio strategy and technical plan? (see Radio World ebook “Trends in Visual Radio 2019.”) Do you have a media asset management system in your plans? Will you index your audio, so it is searchable? Metadata for audio content is a hot topic these days. Will your metadata content look consistent across HD Radio, DAB, and most importantly, hybrid radio/connected car? Did you include the digital team in these discussions? Will you build a large legacy TOC (rack room) or will you make use of the cloud where possible? Have you considered using virtualization to aggregate and manage things such as console engines, audio processing, streaming, codecs, transmission, and many other functions? Have you researched the latest trends in production software and workflow for audio and video? Are you building a live performance space? Does it incorporate the proper technology needed by musical acts? The list goes on but in short research as much as possible to ensure that you’ve made informed technology decisions in your design.

#7. Social Media. Do you have a mediacentric IT fabric to support the specialized requirements of bandwidth-heavy digital audio and video? Is your facility optimized to communicate with your listeners given we live in the age of numerous voice and video apps and use them to engage with the audience? Can you put a Skype, Zoom, WhatsApp or mobile app on the air easily and reliably? Do you support cellular HD voice calls? A simple POTS request line is no longer enough on its own to connect with the audience. Do you support real-time high-quality feeds to YouTube? FB Live? IGTV? Twitch? Do you plan to incorporate automatic speech-to-text intelligence so that some or all your content is searchable? Did you plan for a social media dashboard UI in the studio? You can track real-time audience sentiment using specialized software now — why not show that on that dashboard? There are software and hardware products available to aggregate the relevant various social media platforms for broadcasters that are very powerful.

#8. Security. Given the security breaches and ransomware attacks that have become reality, and considering how almost everything at the radio station connects to the internet, are you prepared? Do you have a security-aware culture in place? Your new studio and facility design should have an IT security framework, which would include redundancy, backups to the cloud, and a quick restoration plan. No studio design should ignore the potential for externally introduced malware. Do you have segregated networks and layers of security that surround them? Did you design each aspect of your studio and office technology with cybersecurity in mind? A simple firewall isn’t enough. Most experts agree it is not a matter of if, but when — so have a plan in place. (See Radio world ebook “Cybersecurity and Studio Disaster Recovery.”)

#9. Innovate. Don’t be afraid to innovate and think outside of the box. So many studios look similar — a desk, chairs, microphones, computer monitors, panels on the wall, fancy track lights, and a window. There is nothing wrong with that. However, some very modern facilities are being designed to look different from the typical studio layout. Avoid the typical console and chair cookie-cutter studio. Design for the user experience and to enhance the on-air product. Design the workflow for the users so that it is easier and less time-consuming to do their job. Design a studio that can increase station revenue. Here’s an example of thinking outside the box: Do studios still need permanent walls? (See VRT Radio 2 Antwerpen article starting on page 4.) There are examples of studios being built without walls nowadays or without physical consoles. There are also studios designed in the cloud, which allows for a less techy studio but more room for the talent. Sometimes, less is more.

#10. Ask for help. It’s ok to ask for help. Every one of us has conferred with others to brainstorm or solve a problem at one point. Your architect, general contractor, electrician, mechanical engineer, and colleagues are there to help and share knowledge. Tour other stations. Some of the best studios incorporate ideas from other creative designs. Dig into the thousands of photos online of cool radio and recording studios. Your studio furniture vendor has worked with many layouts across various projects. They will be another great resource for you and can, in many cases, share drawings and photos. Build a well-thought out facility that achieves your team’s goals using all of the resources and expertise available to you.

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